The Organization of African Unity (OAU)
The Organization of African Unity (OAU) was established on 25 May 1963 at a conference in Addis Ababa with thirty two signatory governments for empowering far reaching historical currents and political trends particularly on the African continent as well as the abroad. It became operational on 13 September 1963, when the OAU Charter entered into force. Afterwards, the membership of OAU eventually encompassed fifty three states of African continent.
Article 2 of the OAU Charter primary aims to promote unity and solidarity of African states in terms of coordinating and intensifying the co-operation of African states for the purpose of achieving a better life for the African people and to defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African states and eliminating colonialism in Africa continent. Member states were harmonizing their policies in areas of politics, diplomacy, economics, transportation, communications, education, health, defense and security. OAU later enhanced its aims to encompass economic cooperation and to protect the human rights in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
By the end of 1990s, OAU powers seemed to be as weak and the influence of the OAU was inadequate to deal with the conflicts both internal and external, poor governance, human right abuses, poverty, and underdevelopment of the African continent entirely and it was incapable of controlling the challenges of globalization due to the fact that an organization called African Union was decided to afresh and it was devoted to the political and economic integration of African democratic values, governance, the rule of law and human rights. Thus, OAU was replaced by the African Union in 2002.